DNA Vaccines

TRACK 12: Futuristic Approach

        12.1: DNA Vaccines

DNA Vaccines are made using recombinant DNA technology, where genes of bacteria or virus is used to stimulate immune system. The viral gene when incorporated into individuals, it will tend to produce viral proteins. These proteins will be considered as foreign particles by the immune system, initiating immune response against those pathogens. This antigen presenting technique act as Vaccination.

Direct injection of naked plasmid DNA into host will enter the host cell cycle when it uptakes the DNA, which produces the viral protein coded by the viral gene. This viral gene acts as an antigen, which induces both MHC Class I and Class II restricted cellular and humoral immune response.

PRODUCTION: Using r-DNA technology Vaccine is inserted into bacterial plasmids which later transforms into bacteria. This bacterial growth produces large number of bacterial plasmids. Plasmid DNA is purified from bacteria by separating larger bacterial DNA and other impurities. This larger DNA acts as vaccine.

ADMINISTRATION: It can be administered by intradermal, intramuscular and intravenous injection. These routes are usually considered because these are rich in Dentritic cells (DC), Macrophages, Lymphocytes. DNA coated with gold nanaoparticles using Gene gun technique is used to administer intradermally.

MECHANISM: After uptake of the plasmids the proteins are produces intracellularly or endogenously which are converted into antigen peptides by host proteases. This will enter lumen of Endoplasmic reticulum.

                                               DNA Vaccine Development

Peptides entering ER will bind to Class I MHC molecules. CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) are simulated which evokes cell-mediated immunity.

Through exogenous peptide production, the foreign particles can be presented by Class II MHC moleclues by Antigen Presenting cells (APC) which evokes CD4+ h-T Cells  responses.
A full understanding of this mechanism of DNA uptake could prove helpful in improving applications for gene therapy and gene vaccination.

If you know more about DNA Vaccines and working on it, here is a platform to bring out your knowledge to the world. VACCINE DESIGN 2018 will be a great platform for you.

Visit the official website of  Vaccine Design 2018 for more details.