New vaccines are constantly being researched and developed. There has been a steady progression in the advancement of vaccines that has led to development of licensed vaccines.

Production of Vaccines: 

Vaccine Production follows certain procedure and methods:

1 Generation of Antigen

   Initially Pathogen's protein or DNA are grown and harvested. This antigen are used in order to trigger the immune response in the host system.
  • Viruses are grown on primary cells such as cells from chicken embryos or using fertilised eggs (e.g. influenza vaccine) or cell lines that reproduce repeatedly (e.g. hepatitis A)
  • Bacteria are grown in bioreactors which are devices that use a particular growth medium that optimises the production of the antigens
  • Recombinant proteins derived from the pathogen can be generated either in yeast, bacteria or cell cultures.     

2 Release and Isolation of Antigen

    The antigen will be separated from the cells and isolated from the proteins and other parts of the growth medium that are still present. This is done in order to increase as much as virus or bacteria release as possible.

3 Purification 

    To get a high quality purified product purification process is done. This will be accomplished using different techniques for protein purification. For this purpose several separation steps will be carried out using the differences in for instance protein size, physico-chemical properties, binding affinity or biological activity.

4 Add on

Here, there are additional materials added to the vaccines for certain purposes. Addition of Adjuvant enhances the recipient's immune response against the antigen provided. The vaccines are added with stabilizers and preservatives to increase the self life and to increase safety.
Finally, all components that constitute the final vaccine are combined and mixed uniformly in a single vial or syringe.

5 Packaging

After following the certain quality control, Good Manufacturing Procedures vaccines are sealed with stoppers and packed without contamination.

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